What Determines an Oils Cleaning Ability ?

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In the specific realm of cleaning ability and keeping an engine's internals clean - what additives in the oil are responsible ? Calcium ? , Calcium + Base Oil ?
 
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In the specific realm of cleaning ability and keeping an engine's internals clean - what additives in the oil are responsible ? Calcium ? , Calcium + Base Oil ?
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FCD

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Base oil, additives such as Calcium are detergents but they don't clean dirt and sludge that is already there, they just prevent the formation of new deposits.

Oils with a high ester content are well known to be good at cleaning, and actually also Group 1 conventional oils, Group 1 is at the same time the "dirtiest" type of base oil, but also it has pretty good solvency compared to something like a Group III HC oil or PAO, because they have a large amount of Aromatics compared to other bases, PAO or GTL are the "cleanest" base oils, but really don't have all that much solvent power.
Hope that makes sense
 
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