T. 2. Troy Weight. 84 grains (gr.) make I penny-weight, marked pwt. 10 penny-weights, 1 ounce, Oz. 12 ounces, 1 pound, 16. 3. Avoirdupois Weight. 16 drams (dr.) make 1 ounce, OZ. 16 ounces, 1 pound, 16. 28 pounds, 1 quarter of a hundred weight, gr. 4 quarters, 1 hundred weight, cut. 20 hundred weight, 1 tun. By this weight are weighed all coarse and drossy goods, grocery warcs, and all metals except gold and silver. 4. Apothecaries Weight. PO grains (gr.) mako 1 scruple, 3 scruples, 1 dram, 3 8 drams, 1 ounce, 3 12 ounces, 1 pound, ! Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their melicines. 5. Cloth Measure. 4 nails (na.) make 1 quarter of a yard, gr. 4 quarers, 1 yard, yd. 3 quarters, i Ell Flemish, E. FI. 5 quarters, 1 EU English, E. E. 6 quarters, 1 El French, E. Fr 1 quart, 6. Dry Measure. 2 pints, (pt.) make gt. 8 quarts, 1 peck, pk. 4 pecks, 1 bushel, bu. This measure is applied to grain, beans, flux-seed, salt mals, oysters, coal, &c. All brandies, spirits, mead, vinegar, oil, &c. are measu ed by wine measure. Note. 231 solid inches, make a gal lon. ins, 8. Long Measure. 3 barley corns (6. c.) make 1 inch, marked 12 inches, 1 foot, ft. 3 feet, 1 yard, yd. 5 yards, 1 rod, pole, or perch, rd. 40 rods, 1 furlong, fur. 8 furlongs, 1 mile, 3 miles, 1 league, lea. 09 statute miles, 1 degree, on the earth. 360 degrees, the circumference of the earth. The use of long measure is to measure the distance of places, or any other thing, where length is considered, withont regard to breadth. N. B. In measuring the height of horses, 4 inches make I hand. In measuring depths, 6 feet make 1 fathom or French toise. Distances are measured by a chain, four rods long, containing one hundred links. sifililit mile. 9. Lund, or Square Measure. 144 square: inches make I square foot. 9 square feet, I share yaris 3:); square yarıls, or 17:21 share feet, or} I seputare roll, 40 squirr rolls, I square roovit 4 pulire noods, I sepmare acre, 640 square acres, 1 10. Solil, or Cubic Measure. 1928 solid inches make I sulied foot. 40 feet of round tuner, or 1 iuni or luiid. 50 feet of hewii timber, los soli teel, or 8 feet long, I cord of wood. wide, and high, All solids, or things that live length, hresulthi, and depth rre measured by this measure. N. B. The wine vallon contains 2:31 solid or cubic inches, and the beer gallon, 202. A bushel contains 2150,12 solid inches. | day, 10. 11. Time. 60 seconds (S.) inake I ininute, marked M. 650 minutes, I hour, h. I hours, d. 19 days, | week, 4 weeks, I month, 1:3 months, 1 day and 6 hours, I Julian year, yr. l'hirty days lrath September, April, June, and November, firborunry twenty-eight alone, all the rest have thirty-one. N. B. lu Bissextile, or leap year, February hath 29 days. 12. Circulur Hlution. 60 seconds (") make 1 minute, : 60 minutes, 1 degree, 300 degrees, I sign, s. 12 signs, ur 360 degrces, the wlwle greut circle of the Toliacha Explanation of Characters used in this Book. Equal to, as 12d. = ls. signifies that 12 pence are eque] to 1 shilling. + More, the sign of Addition; as, 5+7=12, signifies that 5 and 7 added together, are equal to 12. Minus, or less, the sign of Subtraction; as, 6-2=4, sig. nifics that 2 subtracted from 6, leaves 4. X Multiply, or with, the sign of Multiplication; as, 4x3=12, significs that 4 multiplied by 3, is equal to 12. • The sign of Division; as, 8-2=4, signifies that s di. vided by 2, is equal to t; or thus, 1=1, each of which signify the same thing. :: Four points set in the middle of four numbers, denote thein to be proportional w one another, by the rule of three ; as 2:4::8: 16; that is, as 2104, so is 8 to 10. ✓ Prefixed to any number, supposes that the square root of that muniber is required. Prefixed to any number, supposes the cube root of that number is required. Denotes the biquadrate root, or fourth power, &c. ARITIMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has five principal rules for its operiition, viz. Numeralioni, Audition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. Numeration is the art of vumbering. It teaches to express the value of any proposed number by the following characters, or figures : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0-or cipher. Besides the simple value of figures, each has a local ralue, which depends upon the place it stands in, viz. any Sgure in the place of units, represents only its simple value, or so many ones; but in the second place, or place of tens, it recomes so many tens, or ten times its simple value; and in the third place, or place of hundreds, it becomes a hundred times its simple value, and so on, as in the following 4 Nole. Although a ciyher standing alone signifies nothing; yet when it is placed on the right hard uf lignires, it increases their value in a tenfold proportion, by throwing them into higher places. Thus, 2 with a cipher anhexed to it, becomes 20, twenty, and with two ciphers, thus, 200, two hundred. 2. When numbers consisting of many figures, are given to be read, it will be found convenient to divide them into as many periods as we can, of six figures e:ch, reckoning from the i ht hand towards the left, calling the first the period of units, the second that of millions, the third billions, the fourth Trillions, &c. as in the following number : 60 7 3 6 2 5 6 2 7 8 9 0 1 2 5 0 6 7 9 2 4. Period of 3. Period of 2. Period of 11. Period of Trillions. Billiinis. Units. 506792 N. B. Billious is substituted for millions of millicus. |