As for the cigs: I am unclear, but I suspect it could be either. Which version Garner was involved in I cannot comment on. I've not read any info ensuing such a finite detail. As for the police detail: it is a mixed bag. Large departments have plenty of money, but it's never endless. But big pockets allow for a multi-pronged approach to reduction of crime. it is reasonable to consider that NYPD has a multitude of sub-departmental groups such as robbery/homicide, narco, prostitution/human traffic, ordinances, gambling, parking, special events, etc, etc. Each division has their own budget for money and man-hours. When the Mayor's office pushed this agenda (which started under Bloomberg by the way) it is likely the funds were committed for the entire year of 2014, and at least reviewed quaterly. For folks to infer that those cops should have been doing other things, really smacks of a lack of understand of large entities. It is no different at large private companies, is it not? Same goes for military spending, etc, etc, etc ... These cops were on the job they were being paid to do. To suggest they could have been doing something else is silly. Most large departments actually have sub-management teams that micro-manage the daily ops. No one expects the vice guys to cover robbery for a day. No one expects the beat cop to cover contractor fraud, etc. There are something like 35,000 cops in the NYPD, most of which whom work in a paticular division. Most certainly they are capable of being cross-trained to do many things, but their daily responsibilities are targeted per the budge of money and hours. It is my understanding that this started with a group that was doing ordinance enforcement specific to tobacco/alcohol. If I am wrong, someone please correct me. Part of the COPS agenda (the DOJ program I referred to in my orginal post) is all about community policing at the source. Rather than letting crimes fester and encourage debasement of the system, they go to the root and deal with smaller things. It is not a one-tier program; it is multi-tier, from the bottom to the top. Sort of like the butterfly effect, as it were. While I am not suggesting Garner would turn to selling drugs, it is a message sent to those who would. They (NYC) has been on a no tolerance policy at every level for many years now, and it has paid off big time; their crime rates in most every discipline are down. It does not happen overnight; it takes time. As silly as it may seem, there is tangible evidence that pursing the small-time violators does affect larger crime. Likely because tolerance of small crime infers large crime is OK, and vice versa. The best thing to do is read all the links I've previously put out, and spend a lot of time reading the DOJ/COPS website. One of our deputies from our SO went to visit NYC this past summer for vacation. He said it was one of the safest cities he's ever been in. He indicated there were cops on every block as it seemed. And those are just the ones in uniform he could see. It is reasonable to believe that NYC has the money and man-hours to be able to pursue a multitude of crime at every level concurrently and not have to pull one resource for another in daily ops. Certainly large special events are going to draw extra resources, but I suspect most of that is covered by OT and not pulling regular duty cops off their directed jobs.