"Will the system for refigerating the charge air absorb more power than is added by burning the additional fuel enabled by higher intake manifold density?"
Unfortunately, I don't know doodly-squat about how much power refrigeration systems absorb for a given amount of cooling and mass flow. But I can give some ballpark numbers for engine airflow conditions. Let's say that we have a 2.0L turbocharged engine running 15psi boost with a 90% effective intercooler on a 77F day. At 5500 rpm and 30% thermal efficiency, the engine would produce 302 HP. The heat rejection from the intake airflow of 1600 lb/hr would be 1011 BTU/min.
Then add a refigeration system to the intercooler loop with an assumed media temperature of 30F, and keep the same assumptions for engine performance as above. Intake mass flow would increase to 1732 lb/hr, and intake air heat rejection would increase to 1387 BTU/min. Power would increase to 327 HP just by decreasing the intake manifold temperature, an increase of 25 HP. I don't think that a refrigeration system would absorb all that additional power. Are there any HVAC engineers out there that can ballpark some numbers on the refrigeration system?

OK, I'll be your huckleberry.
One of my favourite books is The Efficient Use of Steam, by Oliver Lyle (1947)...he mentions that utilising heat pumps where a latent heat advantage can be gained should never be discounted.
I was hasty in my comments previously.
This is far more complicated, involving not a latent heat process, but a non linearity in terms of the combustion process.
Can you throw me two data points with a fixed max airflow mass and different intake temps