In the Americas region, ethylene is produced by cracking either ethane, a combination of light feedstocks (ethane, propane or butane) or by cracking heavy liquid fuels (light naphtha/natural gasoline or heavy naphtha).
A colorless, odorless, nontoxic, yet flammable gas, ethylene is a constituent of natural gas and petroleum (75% Methane, 25% Ethane, Propane, and Butane). These “fossil fuels” were formed through the decomposition of organic matter over thousands of years and today provide a major energy source. Large amounts of the element may also be located in the atmospheres of Saturn and Jupiter.
Although butane is a gas at room temperature, the primary products,1-hexene, 1-octene and 1-decene, are typically clear, colorless, water-white liquids. These are normally produced and sold as pure (99+ wt.%) products, but are often blended to meet customers specifications.
The increase in PAO applications is largely driven by the stability of the PAO molecule, a highly purified ethylene derivative. This stability, along with a host of other unique performance characteristics, makes PAOs far superior to mineral oils in a variety of uses.
PAOs are specially designed chemicals that are uniquely made from alpha olefins. These stable molecules are produced by:
Steam cracking hydrocarbons to produce ultra high-purity ethylene
Ethylene oligomerization to develop 1-decene and 1-dodecene
Decene or dodecene oligomerization to form a mixture of dimers, trimers, tetramers and higher oligomers
PAOs have many advantages over mineral oils:
Greater oxidative stability
Excellent low-temperature viscosities
Consistent, quality basestock
Extremely high viscosity index
Excellent pour points
Freedom from impurities
1-decene is a ten membered Alpha Olefin.
Imagine ten carbons arranged in a chain each bonded to one other, on each side and to 2 Hydrogens above and below the chain (except at ends when only one C is bonded and the extra bond is taken by an extra H)
Exceptions are the number 1 and 2 carbons with use up two bonds on each other and each get one less H than they usually would.
Hence the "-ene" in the name denoting a double bond between carbons and the "1" means its the first double bond, ie at the "1" position.
This is also called the alpha position, and a hydrocarbon with a double bond in it is called an olefin in the nomenclature of german organic chemists early in the 20th Century, which has never completly fallen out of use.
The 1 Decene is a modern way to say it.
That's correct, it is a 1-Alkene, an Ester has a different fucntional group.
In Alkenes the functional group is this: >C=C<,
Carbon double bonded with each other and two bonds on each side free for other bonds.
-C-[C=O]-O-C- is the functional group for an ester, where the area in parenthesis is bonded via the C and the O is generally represented as above or below the plane
[ November 28, 2003, 08:38 PM: Message edited by: palmerwmd ]